Oil, gas, water or heat reserves are extracted by means of wells. The deeper the wells are drilled the higher the temperature and pressure, which have serious impacts on the materials and drilling techniques. For example, at a depth of 4,000 meters, temperatures can reach 130° C and the pressure 450 bars. Temperatures of 350° C and above can be reached at the deepest points of oil and natural gas wells (up to 8,000 meters) or as a result of geothermal energy.
Special cements are used to ensure that the wells are completely sealed and the steel pipes casing firmly anchored. The space between the extraction hole and the well reinforcement is filled with a cement barrier to ensure that the oil or gas flows inside the well without coming out into the atmosphere.
Oil well cements comply with the following standards:
- International ISO / API SPEC 10 A - 25th edition - March 2019
- International ISO / API SPEC Q1 - 9th edition - June 2014
- European UNI EN ISO 10426-1:2010